Source code for solcore.optics.tmm

from solcore.structure import Layer, Junction, TunnelJunction
from solcore.absorption_calculator import calculate_rat, OptiStack, calculate_absorption_profile

import numpy as np
import types
from warnings import warn

[docs]def solve_tmm(solar_cell, options): """ Calculates the reflection, transmission and absorption of a solar cell object using the transfer matrix method. Internally, it creates an OptiStack and then it calculates the optical properties of the whole structure. A substrate can be specified in the SolarCell object, which is treated as a semi-infinite transmission medium. Shading can also be specified (as a fraction). Relevant options are 'wl' (the wavelengths, in m), the incidence angle 'theta' (in degrees), the polarization 'pol' ('s', 'p' or 'u'), 'position' (locations in m at which depth-dependent absorption is calculated), 'no_back_reflection' and 'BL_correction'. 'no_back_reflection' sets whether reflections from the back surface are suppressed (if set to True, the default), or taken into account (if set to False). If 'BL_correction' is set to True, thick layers (thickness > 10*maximum wavelength) are treated incoherently using the Beer-Lambert law, to avoid the calculation of unphysical interference oscillations in the R/A/T spectra. A coherency_list option can be provided: this should have elements equal to the total number of layers (if a Junction contains multiple Layers, each should have its own entry in the coherency list). Each element is either 'c' for coherent treatment of that layer or 'i' for incoherent treatment. :param solar_cell: A SolarCell object :param options: Options for the solver :return: None """ wl = options.wavelength BL_correction = options.BL_correction if 'BL_correction' in options.keys() else True theta = options.theta if 'theta' in options.keys() else 0 # angle IN DEGREES pol = options.pol if 'pol' in options.keys() else 'u' zero_threshold = options.get("zero_threshold", 1e-5) # We include the shadowing losses initial = (1 - solar_cell.shading) if hasattr(solar_cell, 'shading') else 1 # Now we calculate the absorbed and transmitted light. We first get all the relevant parameters from the objects all_layers = [] widths = [] n_layers_junction = [] for j, layer_object in enumerate(solar_cell): # Attenuation due to absorption in the AR coatings or any layer in the front that is not part of the junction if type(layer_object) is Layer: all_layers.append(layer_object) widths.append(layer_object.width) n_layers_junction.append(1) # For each junction, and layer within the junction, we get the absorption coefficient and the layer width. elif type(layer_object) in [TunnelJunction, Junction]: n_layers_junction.append(len(layer_object)) for i, layer in enumerate(layer_object): all_layers.append(layer) widths.append(layer.width) no_back_reflection = options.no_back_reflection if 'no_back_reflection' in options.keys() else True # With all the information, we create the optical stack if 'no_back_reflexion' in options.keys(): warn('The no_back_reflexion warning is deprecated. Use no_back_reflection instead.', FutureWarning) no_back_reflection = options.no_back_reflexion full_stack = OptiStack(all_layers, no_back_reflection=no_back_reflection, substrate=solar_cell.substrate, incidence=solar_cell.incidence) if 'coherency_list' in options.keys(): coherency_list = options.coherency_list coherent = False assert len(coherency_list) == full_stack.num_layers, \ 'Error: The coherency list must have as many elements (now {}) as the ' \ 'number of layers (now {}).'.format(len(coherency_list), full_stack.num_layers) else: coherency_list = None coherent = True if BL_correction and any(widths > 10*np.max(wl)): # assume it's safe to ignore interference effects make_incoherent = np.where(np.array(widths) > 10*np.max(wl))[0] print('Treating layer(s) ' + str(make_incoherent).strip('[]') + ' incoherently') if not 'coherency_list' in options.keys(): coherency_list = np.array(len(all_layers)*['c']) coherent = False else: coherency_list = np.array(coherency_list) coherency_list[make_incoherent] = 'i' coherency_list = coherency_list.tolist() position = options.position * 1e9 profile_position = position[position < sum(full_stack.widths)] print('Calculating RAT...') RAT = calculate_rat(full_stack, wl * 1e9, angle=theta, coherent=coherent, coherency_list=coherency_list, no_back_reflection=no_back_reflection, pol=pol) print('Calculating absorption profile...') out = calculate_absorption_profile(full_stack, wl * 1e9, dist=profile_position, angle=theta, no_back_reflection=no_back_reflection, pol=pol, coherent=coherent, coherency_list=coherency_list, zero_threshold=zero_threshold, RAT_out=RAT) # With all this information, we are ready to calculate the differential absorption function diff_absorption, all_absorbed = calculate_absorption_tmm(out, initial) # Each building block (layer or junction) needs to have access to the absorbed light in its region. # We update each object with that information. layer = 0 A_per_layer = np.array(RAT['A_per_layer'][1:-1]) # first entry is R, last entry is T for j in range(len(solar_cell)): solar_cell[j].layer_absorption = initial*np.sum(A_per_layer[layer:(layer+n_layers_junction[j])], axis = 0) solar_cell[j].diff_absorption = diff_absorption solar_cell[j].absorbed = types.MethodType(absorbed, solar_cell[j]) layer = layer + n_layers_junction[j] solar_cell.reflected = RAT['R'] * initial solar_cell.absorbed = sum([solar_cell[x].layer_absorption for x in np.arange(len(solar_cell))]) solar_cell.transmitted = initial - solar_cell.reflected - solar_cell.absorbed
[docs]def absorbed(self, z): out = self.diff_absorption(self.offset + z) * (z < self.width) return out.T
[docs]def calculate_absorption_tmm(tmm_out, initial=1): all_z = tmm_out['position'] * 1e-9 all_abs = initial * tmm_out['absorption'] / 1e-9 def diff_absorption(z): idx = all_z.searchsorted(z) idx = np.where(idx <= len(all_z) - 2, idx, len(all_z) - 2) try: z1 = all_z[idx] z2 = all_z[idx + 1] f = (z - z1) / (z2 - z1) out = f * all_abs[:, idx] + (1 - f) * all_abs[:, idx + 1] except IndexError: out = all_abs[:, idx] return out all_absorbed = np.trapz(diff_absorption(all_z), all_z) return diff_absorption, all_absorbed